Информация по реабилитации инвалида-колясочника, спинальника и др.
 
Информация по реабилитации инвалида - колясочника, спинальника и др.
 
 
 
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II. Architectural design considerations

1. Ramps

1. Problem identification

Inaccessible building entrances due to difference between indoor and outdoor levels.

Inaccessible routes due to differences in level.

Lack of or improper design of ramps.

Very steep and/or long ramps with no resting landings.

2. Planning principle

To provide ramps wherever stairs obstruct the free passage of pedestrians, mainly wheelchair users and people with mobility problems.

3. Design considerations

3.1 General

An exterior location is preferred for ramps. Indoor ramps are not recommended because they take up a great deal of space.

Ideally, the entrance to a ramp should be immediately adjacent to the stairs.

3.2 Ramp configuration (1)

Ramps can have one of the following configurations:

(a) Straight run (fig. 1);

(b) 90 turn (fig. 2);

(c) Switch back or 180 turn (fig. 3).

3.3 Width

Width varies according to use, configuration and slope.

The minimum width should be 0.90 m.

3.4 Slope

The maximum recommended slope of ramps is 1:20. Steeper slopes may be allowed in special cases depending on the length to be covered (fig. 4).

Maximum slope Maximum length Maximum rise
1:20  i.e., 9% - -
1:16  i.e., 6% 8 m 0.50 m
1:14  i.e., 7% 5 m 0.35 m
1:12  i.e., 8% 2 m 0.15 m
1:10  i.e., 10% 1.25 m 0.12 m
1:08  i.e., 12% 0.5 m 0.06 m

3.4 Landings

Ramps should be provided with landings for resting, maneuvering and avoiding excessive speed.

Landings should be provided every 10.00 m, at every change of direction and at the top and bottom of every ramp.

The landing should have a minimum length of 1.20 m and a minimum width equal to that of the ramp

3.5 Handrail

A protective handrail at least 0.40 m high must be placed along the full length of ramps.

For ramps more than 3.00 m wide, an intermediate handrail could be installed (fig. 5).

The distance between handrails when both sides are used for gripping should be between 0.90 m and 1.40 m (fig. 5).

3.6 Surface

The ramp surface should be hard and non-slip.

Carpets should be avoided.

3.7 Tactile marking

A coloured textural indication at the top and bottom of the ramp should be placed to alert sightless people as to the location of the ramp.

The marking strip width should not be less than 0.60 m.

3.8 Drainage n Adequate drainage should be provided to avoid accumulation of water.

3.9 Obstacles

The same clearance considerations that apply to pathways apply to ramps (see Obstructions).

3.10 Mechanical Ramps

Mechanical ramps can be used in large public buildings but are not recommended for use by persons with physical impairments.

If the ramp is to be used by a wheelchair-confined person, the slope should not exceed 1:12.

The maximum width should be 1.00 m to avoid slipping.

4. Existing constructions

If the topography or structure of the existing building is restrictive, minor variations of gradient are allowed as a function of the ramp length:

Maximum slope Maximum length Maximum rise
1:20  i.e., 9% - -
1:16  i.e., 6% 8 m 0.50 m
1:14  i.e., 7% 5 m 0.35 m
1:12  i.e., 8% 2 m 0.15 m
1:10  i.e., 10% 1.25 m 0.12 m
1:08  i.e., 12% 0.5 m 0.06 m

A non-slip surface finish should be added to slippery ramps.


Notes:

(1) Circular or curved ramps are not recommended

Straight run ramp with a landing.
Fig. 1

 

Ninety (90) degree turn ramp.
Fig. 2

 

Switch back or 180 degree turn ramp.
Fig. 3

 

Maximum recommended slope is 1:20.
Fig. 4

 

Configuration of handrails on ramps.
Fig. 5

2. Elevators

1. Problem identification

Inadequate space inside the elevator cab.

High position of switches, buttons and control panel.

Narrow entry doors.

Insufficient opening time interval.

2. Planning principle

To provide well-dimensioned elevators, that disabled people can use conveniently.

3. Design considerations

3.1 General

The accessible elevator should serve all floors normally reached by the public.

Key-operated elevators should be used only in private facilities or when an elevator operator is present.

Wide elevator cabs are preferable to long ones.

3.2 Elevator cab

The minimum internal elevator dimensions, allowing for one wheelchair passenger alone, are 1.00 m x 1.30 m (fig. 1).

The door opening should not be less than 0.80 m.

The inside of the elevator should have a handrail on three sides mounted 0.80 to 0.85 m from the floor (fig. 2).

The maximum tolerance for stop precision should be 20 mm.

3.3 Control panel

The control panel can be mounted at one of the alternative locations shown in figure 3.

For ease of reach, the control panel should be mounted 0.90 m to 1.20 m from the floor (fig. 2).

Control buttons should be in an accessible location and illuminated. Their diameter should be no smaller than 20 mm.

The numerals on the floor selector buttons should be embossed so as to be easily identifiable by touch.

3.4 Call buttons

For ease of reach, call buttons should be mounted 0.90 m to 1.20 m from the floor (fig. 4). 3.5 Floor identifiers

Tactile numerals should be placed on both sides of the door jambs at an approximate height of 1.50 m to help a lone sightless passenger to identify the floor reached (fig. 4). 3.6 Hall signal

The elevator hall signal should be placed at an approximate height of 1.80 m (fig. 4).

3.7 Door re-opening activators

The door opening interval should be no less than five seconds. Re-opening activators should be provided.

3.8 Audiovisual signals

The elevator should signal arrival at each floor by means of a bell and a light to alert sightless and hearing-impaired passengers simultaneously.

3.9 Floor surface

The floor of the elevator and the area in front of the elevetor on each floor should have a non skid resilient surface or a low-pile fixed carpet.

3.10 Colour

The colour of the elevator door should contrast with the surrounding surface so as to be easily distinguishable by persons with visual impairments.

4. Existing constructions

The minimum acceptable size of an existing elevator cab, allowing for a single wheelchair passenger, is 0.95 m x 1.25 m. Smaller cabs should be replaced.

The minimum acceptable width of an existing elevator door opening is 0.75 m.

Call buttons and control panels mounted higher than the recommended height may be left in place if they are within 1.40 m of the floor, this being the maximum reach of a wheelchair user.

Controls mounted higher than 1.40 m should be replaced.

Where there are two identical control panels, only one need be replaced.

Minimum internal elevator dimensions for one wheelchair passenger alone are 1.00 x 1.30 m.
Fig. 1

 

Handrails inside elevators at 0.80 to 0.85 m ; control panel at 0.90 m to 1.20 m.
Fig. 2

 

Alternative locations for control panels inside elevators.
Fig. 3

 

Dimensions for call buttons, floor identifiers, and hall signals.
Fig. 4

3. Platform lifts (1)

1. Problem identification

Changes in level between indoor and outdoor areas.

Changes in level inside a building.

Insufficient space for ramps.

2. Planning principle

To allow people with mobility problems to have free vertical access between different levels.

3. Design considerations

3.1 General

Platform lifts are special passenger-elevating devices for the disabled.

Platform lifts can have either a vertical or an inclined movement.

3.2 Vertical movement platform lifts

For maximum level changes of 2.50 m, vertical movement platform lifts may be installed adjacent to the stairs (fig. 1).

For level changes of more than 1.20 m, the lift should be placed in a closed structure with doors at the different accessible levels (fig. 2).

Vertical platform lifts can have a variety of opening for entry and exit (fig. 3).

3.3 Inclined movement platform lifts

Inclined movement platform lifts consist of three elements: a railing, an electric generator and a moving platform or seat.

The operating system of the lift can be either lateral (fig. 4) or suspended (fig. 5).

Inclined movement platform lifts can be installed along the stair wall, as long as they do not obstruct the required width of the exit. The seat or platform can be folded when not in use.

The minimum width of the stairs should be 0.90 m to allow the installation of a lift (fig. 6).

Platform lifts can be installed on all types of stairs including switch-back stairs i.e. those with a rotation angle of 180 (fig. 7) and spiral staircases (fig. 5).

3.4 Lift size

The minimum width of the lift platform should be 0.90 m and the minimum length should be 1.20 m (fig. 3).

4. Existing constructions

Platform lifts can provide access to existing buildings where it would be difficult or unfeasible to install a ramp or an elevator.

Inclined movement platform lifts are usually used to connect one or more floors or to overcome split levels in existing buildings. In buildings that are or would be frequently used by persons with mobility problems, such devices should not be utilized.


Notes:

(1) Platform lifts are also known as stairway lifts or wheelchair lifts.

Vertical movement platform lift installed next to stairs for max level changes of 2.50 m.
Fig. 1

Lift with alternative door at different accessible levels.
Fig. 2

Vertical platform lifts and variety of openings for entry and exit.
Fig. 3

Inclined movement platform lift with lateral operating system.
Fig. 4

Inclined movement platform lift with a suspended operating system.
Fig. 5

Minimum width of stairs is 0.90 to allow installation of a lift.
Fig. 6
Platform lifts can also be installed on switch back or 180 degree stairs.
Fig. 7

4. Stairs

1. Problem identification

Steep staircases.

Poorly designed steps that hinder foot movement.

2. Planning principle

To provide safe and well-dimensioned staircases for the comfort of all people, especially those with mobility problems.

3. Design considerations

3.1 General

Differences in level should be illuminated or minimized as much as possible for the comfort of disabled people.

A complementary ramped route, elevator or lift should be provided where there are steps in an otherwise accessible path.

All steps should be uniform.

Circular stairs and stepped landings should be avoided (fig. 1).

Open risers are not recommended.

3.2 Width

The minimum width of a stairway should be 0.90 m for one-way traffic and 1.50 m for two-way traffic.

For indoor stairs, the riser should be between 0.12 m and 0.18 m, and the tread between 0.28 m and 0.35 m.

For outdoor stairs, the maximum riser should be 0.15 m and the minimum tread should be 0.30 m.

3.3 Landing (fig. 2) (fig. 3)

An intermediate landing should be provided when the stairs cover a difference in level of more than 2.50 m.

The length of the landing should be at least 1.20 m extending along the full width of the stairs.

3.4 Nosing (fig. 4)

Sharp edges and overhanging nosing should not be used for treads.

Nosing should be flush or rounded and should not project more than 40 mm.

3.5 Handrails

Handrails must be installed on both sides of the stairs and around the landing for gripping (fig. 3).

For stairs more than 3.00 m wide, one or more intermediate handrails could be provided (fig. 5).

The distance between the handrails when both sides are used for gripping should be between 0.90 m and 1.40 m (fig. 5).

Handrails must extend a distance between 0.30 m and 0.45 m at the top and bottom of the stairs (see Railings and Handrails) (fig. 3).

3.6 Tactile marking (fig. 2) (fig. 3)

A textural marking strip should be placed at the top and bottom of the stairs and at intermediate landings to alert sightless people as to the location of the stairs.

The tactile marking strip should be at least 0.60 m wide and should extend over the full width of the stairs.

To guide users with poor vision, the colour of the strip should contrast with the surrounding surface. 3.7 Surface

Landings, treads and nosing should be slip-resistant and free of projections.

Exterior stairs should be pitched forward at 10 mm per metre to drain surface water.

Slip-resistant stair nosing should be used to fix carpets on stairs.

3.8 Emergency stairs

Emergency stairs should be identified by tactile markings.

3.9 Mechanical stairs (escalators)

Mechanical stairs can be provided with an adaptable tread at least 1.20 m long, if they are to be used by persons confined to wheelchairs (fig. 6).

The edges of escalators should be painted in a contrasting colour for the benefit of poor- sighted users.

4. Existing constructions

When the configuration of the nosing cannot be modified, slip-resistant strip scould be applied to the nosing as an alternative solution (fig. 7).

Slip-resistant strips should be 40 mm wide and should not extent more than 1 mm above the tread surface.

To guide people with sight problems, the colour of the strips should contrast with that of the stairs.

Circular stairs and stepped landings should be avoided.
Fig. 1

 

Intermediate landing dimensions; minimum 1.20 m length.
Fig. 2

 

Dimensions for landings, handrails; tactile marking on landings.
Fig. 3

 

Recommended nosing types.
Fig. 4: Recommended nosing types

 

Intermediate handrail for wide staircases.
Fig. 5

 

Mechanical stairs (escalators) with adaptable tread for use with wheelchairs.
Fig. 6

 

Slip-resistant strips of 40 mm wide for unmodifiable stair nosings.
Fig. 7

5. Railings and handrails

1. Problem identification

Unsafe railings.

Hard to grip handrails.

No railings or handrails.

2. Planning principle

To install adequate railing, wherever needed for the comfort and safety of all people, especially those with mobility problems.

3. Design considerations

3.1 General

Safety guards or railings should be installed around hazardous areas, stairs, ramps, accessible roofs, mezzanines, galleries, balconies and raised platforms more than 0.40 m high.

On stairways, windows positioned less than 1.00 m from the landing should have railings.

Handrails should be installed to assist disabled persons in bathrooms and toilets (see Rest Rooms).

Spacing between the vertical and horizontal bars of railings should be narrow for the safety of children.

Handrails should not obstruct the path of travel.

3.2 Height (fig. 1) (1)

To facilitate use by ambulant disabled and elderly people, handrails should be mounted between 0.85 m and 0.95 m above the finished floor level.

For the benefit of wheelchair users, a second handrail can be mounted between 0.70 m and 0.75 m from the floor.

To facilitate use by children and short people, a third handrail can be mounted at a height of 0.60 m.

To guide sightless people using a long cane, a rail should be mounted at a height between 0.10 m and 0.15 m (fig. 1); or a low curb should be installed at a height between 50 mm and 75 mm (fig. 2). Low curbs also act as wheelstops.

3.3 Mounting

Railings should be securely attached to the wall or to a supporting structure so as to withstand heavy loads.

Railings should not end abruptly but extend to the floor or blend into the wall so as not to create a hazard for sightless people.

3.4 Form (fig. 3)

Handrails should allow a firm and easy grip.

Circular cross-sections with a diameter of 40 mm are preferable.

Sharp edges should be avoided.

3.5 Handrails for ramps and stairs

Handrails should continue uninterrupted (except for doorways) on both sides and around the landing.

Handrails should extend horizontally for a distance between 0.30 m and 0.45 m at the top and bottom of stairs and ramps, except in places where extensions could obstruct the pedestrian flow (fig.4).

For stairs or ramps more than 3.00 m wide, a continuous intermediate handrail could be provided (see Ramps; Stairs).

3.6 Wall-mounted handrails

The space between the handrail and the wall should be between 40 mm and 50 mm for smooth walls and 60 mm for rough textured walls (fig. 5).

Where handrails are fully recessed into walls, a space of at least 0.15 m should be allowed between the top of the rail and the top of the recess (fig. 6).

3.7 Tactile marking

For emergency exit stairs or ramps, a contrasting tactile strip at least 0.90 m long should be applied to the top and bottom edges of the handrail to alert the partially sighted.

3.8 Colour

A contrasting colour is recommended for handrails to alert people with sight problems.

4. Existing constructions

If existing railings and handrails do not comply with the above requirements, they should be modified or replaced.


Notes:

(1) Measurements are taken from the front of the tread.

Dimensions for railings for use by different persons with disabilities.
Fig. 1

 

Low curbs under railings as wheelstops and guides for sightless people.
Fig. 2

 

Preferred, acceptable and non-recommended cross sections for hand railings.
Fig. 3

 

Dimensions of handrails for ramps and stairs.
Fig. 4

 

Space between handrail and a wall at 40 mm to 50 mm for smooth walls and 60 mm for textured walls.
Fig. 5

 

Dimensions for handrails recessed into walls: at least 0.15 m between top of rail and top of recess.
Fig. 6

6. Entrances

1. Problem identification

No distinct accessible entrance.

Inadequate space in front of the entrance.

2. Planning principle

To provide accessible and easy-to-find building entrances.

3. Design considerations

3.1 General

For new accessible constructions, all main public entrances should be accessible to an ambulant disabled person.

At least one entrance per facility should be accessible to a wheelchair user. In new buildings, the accessible entrance(s) should be the main entrance(s) intended for use by the general public.

Each accessible entrance should be connected by accessible pathways to accessible indoor or outdoor parking areas, local public transit stops and drop-off areas (fig. 1).

In multi-storey buildings, the accessible entrance should permit access to a conveniently located accessible elevator or lift.

3.2 Signs

Accessible entrances should be clearly identified using the international symbol of accessibility including alternate locations of accessible entrances (fig. 2).

No signs are needed if the whole building is accessible.

3.3 Entrance landing

Where the entrance door opens outward, the minimum landing dimensions should comply with figure 3.

Where the entrance door opens inward, the minimum landing dimensions should comply with figure 4.

The surface of the landing should have a slope of 2% for drainage.

The finish material should be non-slippery.

Jute door mats should be avoided. When used however, the upper surface of the mat should be level with the floor finish (fig. 5).

Sheltered landings are preferable.

3.5 Threshold

Thresholds should be removed wherever possible (see Doors).

3.6 Colour

The colour of the entrance door should contrast with the surrounding surface so as to be distinguishable by people with sight problems.

3.7 Entrance vestibules (see Vestibules)

3.8 Entrance doors (see Doors)

4. Existing constructions

Public buildings should have at least one accessible entrance. Wherever possible, this should be the main entrance intended for use by the general public (1) (see Building Types).

If for architectural or technical reasons the main entrance cannot be made accessible, an alternative accessible entrance should be provided. The location of the alternative entrance should be clearly indicated by signs.

To allow for an accessible entrance, one of the following solutions can be adapted:

(a) Ramps, bridges or mechanical lifts be used; (2)

(b) The entrance level might be modified earthfill, or by changing the grade or the landscaping of the surrounding site;

(c) A window or another door at ground might be converted into an accessible entrance.


Notes:

(1) For existing constructions, a service entrance can be used temporarily as an accessible entrance, but it should not be the only accessible entrance.

(2) Mechanical lifts are recommended for buildings where modifications are impossible or unacceptable.

Accessible entrances connected by pathways to indoor or outdoor parking areas, transit stops and drop-off areas.
Fig. 1

 

Accessible entrances identified using international symbol of accessibility.
Fig. 2

 

Dimensions for outward opening entrance doors.
Fig. 3

 

Dimensions for entrance doors that open inward.
Fig. 4

 

Jute door mats should be avoided; when used, should be level with floor.
Fig. 5

7. Vestibules

1. Problem identification

Narrow doorways and vestibules.

2. Planning principle

To provide sufficient space to manoeuvre a wheelchair between two sets of doors.

3. Design considerations

3.1 General

Vestibule entrance doors can be either the sliding type or the swinging type.

For swinging doors, the door mechanism should allow the maximum opening swing.

3.2 Layout

The layout of two swinging doors in a series can be one of the following:

(a) Outward-swinging (fig. 1);

(b) Double-swinging (fig. 2);

(c) Swinging in the same direction (1) (fig. 3);

(d) Inward-swinging (fig. 4).

4. Existing constructions

For narrow vestibules either of the following solutions can be employed:

(a) Replace swinging doors with sliding doors;

(b) Change the direction of the door swing so that both doors can be made to swing outwards, if possible (fig. 5).

(c) Install double-swinging doors for small exit vestibules with a minimum width of 1.20 m.

(d) Remove the inside or second door.

(e) Enlarge the existing vestibule if possible (2) (fig. 6).


Notes:

(1) Doors swinging in the same direction can be aligned, offset on opposite walls or offset on adjacent walls.

(2) This is recommended for vestibules that also serve as emergency exits because other solutions, such as changing the direction of the door swing, might not solve the problem.

Dimensions for outward swinging doors.
Fig. 1

Dimensions for double-swinging doors.
Fig. 2

Dimensions for doors swinging in the same direction.
Fig. 3

Dimensions for inward swinging doors.
Fig. 4

Change direction of door swing so both doors can swing outwards if possible.
Fig. 5

Enlarging existing vestibule.
Fig. 6

8. Doors

1. Problem identification

Narrow doorways.

Doors hinged on the wrong side, thus hindering accessibility.

Doorways with high thresholds.

Heavy and hard-to-operate door leaves.

2. Planning principle

To facilitate the passage of a wheelchair user through doors.

3. Design considerations

3.1 General

Accessible doors should be so designed as to permit operation by one person in a single motion with little effort.

Power-operated doors are the best for people with disabilities. The activator system should be automatic or placed within easy reach.

An accessible door should have the following features: a sign, a door handle, an extra pull handle, glazing and a kick plate.

3.2 Door types (a) Automatic doors: - Can be of the sliding or swinging type. In general sliding doors are preferable to swinging doors (fig. 1) (fig. 2).

- Automatic doors are useful when traffic is heavy.

- Automatic doors should have an adequate opening interval. -Guard-rails can be installed near double-swinging doors to indicate a door-opening area and to prevent people from being hit by the door.

(b) Revolving doors: - Revolving doors are not suitable for the use of disabled people or people with prams.

- Wherever there are revolving doors, an adjacent accessible swinging or sliding door should be provided (fig. 3).

- Auxiliary gates should be provided next turnstiles (fig. 3).

(c) Pivoted doors: - Pivoted doors should swing away from the direction of travel wherever possible.

- Pivoted doors in series are considered as vestibules (see Vestibules).

(d) Sliding and folding doors: - Manual sliding and folding doors are recommended for narrow spaces not heavily used by the public (fig. 4).

3.3 Door opening

For exterior doors, the minimum opening is 0.90 m when the door is open.

For interior doors, the minimum opening is 0.80 m when the door is open.

The minimum door opening can be 0.75 m if the access is straight or if the door can stay open by itself (fig. 5).

The minimum door width of rest rooms should be 0.75 m.

For doors installed in an opening more than 0.60 m in depth, the clear door opening should be at least 0.90 m (fig. 6).

For double-leaf doors, at least one leaf should have a minimum clear width of 0.80 m (fig. 7).

3.4 Manual door hardware

Operational devices on doors, such as handles, pulls, latches and locks, should be easy to grasp with one hand (fig. 8).

(a) Handles: - Lever-type handles, push plates or pull handles are recommended for swinging doors because they are easy to open. (1)

- Round knobs are not recommended.

- Door handles should be located at a comfortable height between 0.90 m and 1.00 m from the floor surface.

(b) Locks: Locks on entrance doors should be mounted at a comfortable height between 0.90 m and 1.00 m from the floor.

(c) Extra pull handle: To facilitate closing, a door fitted with spring closers should be equipped with an extra pull handle approximately 0.30 m in length, located between 0.20 m and 0.30 m from the hinged side of the door and mounted between 0.90 m and 1.20 m from the floor.

3.5 Automatic doors hardware

Automatic doors can be activated by:

(a) Push buttons located at a comfortable height between 0.90 m and 1.20 m; (b) Activating mats, which can also serve as a location cue (fig. 2);

(c) Card-insert switch;

(d) Remote control.

3.6 Threshold (fig. 8)

Thresholds should be omitted wherever possible. Weather-stripping at the door bottom is preferred to thresholds.

The threshold should not be more than 20 mm higher than the finished floor level.

Thresholds higher than 6 mm should be beveled or have sloped edges to facilitate the passage of a wheelchair.

3.7 Exit doors landing

The exit landing should not be lower than the finished floor level by more than 20 mm.

3.8 Glazing and glazed doors

Outward swinging doors and doors in public corridors should have low windows to enable users to see oncoming traffic. The bottom edge of the window should not be higher than 1.00 m from the finished floor level (fig. 8).

Completely glazed doors should be avoided in buildings frequented by people with visual impairments.

Glazed doors should be clearly marked with a coloured band or mark placed for the benefit of all users at a height between 1.40 m and 1.60 m (fig. 2).

3.9 Kick plates

Kick plates are useful in protecting the finish on the lower part of the door. Kick plates should be between 0.30 m and 0.40 m in height (fig. 8).

3.10 Signage

In public buildings, the function or room number, incorporating international symbols should be identified at eye level, i.e. between 1.40 m and 1.60 m (fig. 8).

Room numbers should be placed on door frames and not on doors themselves so that the room number is visible even when the door is open.

3.11 Colour

The door or the door frame can be painted in a colour that contrasts with the adjoining wall to facilitate its identification by people with visual impairments.

4. Existing constructions

It is recommended that automatic doors replace heavy, hard-to-open swinging doors.

Door openings narrower than 0.75 m should be widened. A swing-clear hinged door may be used to slightly enlarge an opening.


Notes:

(1) Lever type handles can be activated by hand, elbow or other means.

Activating mat for automatic doors.
Fig. 1

 

Activating mat for automatic doors; doors open away from mat.
Fig. 2

 

Wherever there are revolving doors, adjacent swinging or sliding door required.
Fig. 3

 

Manual sliding and folding doors for narrow spaces.
Fig. 4

 

Minimum door opening of 0.75 m if door can stay open by itself.
Fig. 5

 

Minimum door width of 0.90 m for opening of more than 0.60 m in depth.
Fig. 6

 

Double-leaf doors, at least one door with minimum width of 0.80 m.
Fig. 7

 

Dimensions for signage, glazing, and extra pull handles for doors.
Fig. 8

9. Corridors

1. Problem identification

Long and narrow corridors creating orientation difficulties.

2. Planning principle

To provide well-dimensioned corridors to facilitate the passage and maneuvering of a wheelchair.

3. Design considerations

3.1 General

Wide corridors are useful for wheelchair users, service equipment, high traffic areas, etc.

3.2 Width

The unobstructed width of a low-traffic corridor should not be less than 0.90 m. This also allows maneuverability in 90 turns (fig. 1).

The unobstructed width of a public corridor should not be less than 1.50 m. The recommended width is 1.80 m (1) (fig. 2).

To allow maneuverability in 180 turns, the minimum circulation space should be as shown in figure 3.

The corridor width should allow maneuverability through the doors located along its length (fig. 2) (fig. 4).

3.3 Obstructions

Obstacles protruding into the corridor, such as drinking fountains or public telephones, should be placed outside the circulation path, in alcoves or cul-de-sacs (fig. 5).

Overhanging signs and obstacles should be mounted at least 2.00 m high (fig. 6).

3.4 Surface

Changes in surface level of more than 13 mm should be ramped.

Floor surfaces should be non-slip and even. Carpets should be securely fastened.

4. Existing constructions

Narrow corridors should be widened along their full length if feasible; otherwise, passing areas should be located at appropriate intervals along the corridor length.

The minimum width of the passing area should be 1.50 m and the minimum length should be 2.40 m.

In highly restricted spaces, the height of an obstacle or sign can be dropped to 1.95 m.


Notes:

(1) 1.50 m is the minimum width for two wheelchairs to pass each other or for one wheelchair to make a full turn.

Unobstructed width of low-traffic corridor at 0.90 m allows 90 degree turns.
Fig. 1

 

Unobstructed width of public corridor at 1.50 m; recommended 1.80
Fig. 2

 

Minimum circulation space of 1.20 m for 180 degree turns.
Fig. 3

 

Allowance for maneuverability for doors along length of corridor at 1.20 m.
Fig. 4

 

Protruding obstacles should be placed outside circulation path or in cul-de-sacs.
Fig. 5

 

Overhead signs or obstacles at least 2.0 m high.
Fig. 6

10. Rest rooms

1. Problem identification

Insufficient space inside a rest room.

Poor design and positioning of fixtures and fittings.

Taps that are difficult to grip.

2. Planning principle

To provide sufficient accessible space inside rest rooms, with all fixtures and fittings being within easy reach.

3. Design considerations

3.1 General

Turning circles of 1.50 m diameter are recommended inside the rest room to allow for full-turn maneuvering of a wheelchair.

The ease of transfering from a wheelchair to a toilet seat or bidet depends on the approach. In general there are four different approaches:

(a) The parallel approach, which is the easiest (fig. 1);

(b) The diagonal approach, which is difficult (fig. 2);

(c) The perpendicular approach, which is also difficult (fig. 3);

(d) The frontal approach which is the most difficult and needs particular care (fig. 4).

3.2 Public rest rooms

In any public rest room, at least one compartment for each sex should be accessible to an ambulant disabled person.

In any public rest room at least one unisex com partment should be accessible to a wheelchair user.

Accessible rest rooms should be marked with the international symbol of accessibility. No indication is needed if all rest rooms are accessible.

Pivoted doors should open outward unless sufficient space is provided within the toilet stall.

3.3 Special public rest rooms

Installation of a separate unisex unit is always desirable in public buildings, even when all rest rooms are accessible, so as to allow a disabled person to be assisted by an attendant of the opposite sex.

Special rest rooms should be marked with the international symbol of accessibility but should not be the only accessible rest rooms.

A water-closet and a lavatory should be provided within special rest rooms.

The size and layout of special rest rooms should comply with the minimum requirements (fig. 5).

3.4 Residential rest rooms

Residential rest rooms include those in private residences, health facilities, dormitories and other residential institutional settings.

Residential bathrooms are usually equipped with a toilet, a bidet, a wash-basin and a bath-tub or shower.

In multiple-rest-room arrangements (such as dormitories):

(a) Only one wash-basin per rest room needs to be accessible; (b) At least one shower stall and one toilet stall should be designed for a wheelchair user.

To save space in private occupancies:

(a) The tiled floor area adjacent to the tub can be used as a shower space; (b) The wash-basin seat might be used as a seat during the use of the wash-basin or the hand shower.

The size and layout of residential rest rooms should comply with the minimum requirements (fig. 6).

3.5 Rest room fixtures

1) Water closets:

The size and layout of water-closets and toilet stalls should comply with the minimum requirement (fig. 7) (fig. 8).

The height of the toilet seat should be between 0.45 m and 0.50 m from the finished floor level. (1)

The distance between the center line of the toilet seat and the adjacent wall, if provided with a grip bar, should be between 0.45 m and 0.50 m.

Grab bars should be mounted on the wall behind the water closet, if it is of the tankless type, and on the side wall closest to the water closet, or mounted on the floor at the edges of the seat. (2)

Grab bars should be mounted at a height between 0.85 m and 0.95 m from the floor.

Flushing arrangements and toilet paper should be placed within reach at a height between 0.50 m and 1.20 m.

Accessible hand-operated flushing controls, located on the open side of the water-closet, are recommended.

Wall-mounted water closets are recommended.

2) Lavatories:

The dimensions of lavatories should comply with the minimum requirements (fig. 9).

The height of a wash basin should be between 0.80 m and 0.85 m above the finished floor level.

The distance between the center line of the wash-basin and the adjacent side wall should at least be 0.45 m.

The wash-basin may be drawn forward from the wall a distance between 0.15 m and 0.20 m.

No shelves must be located above the wash- basin.

3)Bath-tubs:

In general bath-tubs are difficult to use by those confined to a wheelchair without the help of an attendant.

The dimensions of bath-tubs should comply with the minimum requirements (fig. 10).

The minimum dimensions of the bath-tub should be 1.60 m x 0.70 m.

The height of the tub should be between 0.45 m and 0.50 m from finished floor level.

An in-tub seat or a seat at the same height of the tub should be provided at the head side of the tub. (1)

A grab bar should be mounted on the wall between 0.85 m and 0.95 m from the finished floor level. (2)

Tubs with a toe recess are recommended.

4) Showers:

The dimensions of showers should comply with the minimum requirements (fig. 11) (fig. 12).

The shower should have a seat conveniently positioned for the shower head at a height of 0.45 m and 0.50 m. (1)

The shower seat should be of the hinged pull-down or removable type, not spring-loaded.

A grab bar should be placed on the wall opposite the seat and around the back wall, mounted at a height between 0.85 m and 0.95 m.

Drain openings should be placed in a corner of the stall so that slip-resistant rubber mats can be used.

The floor of the shower stall should not be more than 20 mm below the level of the surrounding floor area.

The shower stall should have a beveled threshold not exceeding 13 mm above the finished floor.

5) Bidets:

The dimensions of bidets should comply with the minimum requirements.

The upper edge of the bidet should be between 0.45 m and 0.50 m from the finished floor level. (1)

The distance between the center line of the bidet and the adjacent wall should be at least 0.45 m.

Wall mounted bidets are recommended.

6) Urinals: (fig. 13)

At least one accessible urinal should be provided in public rest rooms.

Urinals should have a clear space on both sides.

A full-length urinal is the most accessible.

Urinals with a protruding lip should be mounted at a height of 0.45 m from the finished floor level.

3.6 Rest room door

The clear door opening should be at least 0.75 m with the door in the open position.

Doors should be lockable from inside and releasable from outside under emergency situations.

Regardless of the door type, a handle should be placed on the door from the inside to facilitate closing. Another handle should be provided on the outside (see Doors).

3.7 Accessories

All accessories, such as soap, towel and toilet paper dispensers, should be placed at a height between 0.50 m and 1.20 m from the finished floor level.

3.8 Grab bars

Grab bars should be installed in water-closets, bath-tubs and showers to assist disabled persons to use the facilities safely and easily. (2)

Grab bars should have a diameter of 30 mm to 40 mm.

Wall-mounted grab bars should extent between 35 mm and 45 mm from the wall.

Grab bars should be firmly fixed with stand loads and should have non-slip surfaces; knurled surfaces usually prevent slipping.

3.9 Mirrors

Mirrors should be suitable for use by both standing and seated persons. Low mirrors or downward tilted mirrors can be used.

The bottom edge of mirrors should be located at a maximum height of 1.00 m from the finished floor level (fig. 9).

3.10 Faucets

Single-lever mixing-type faucets, which are easily operated by hand or elbow, are recommended. Faucets with push buttons are also convenient.

The clearance between the grip of the tap and any adjacent vertical surface should not be less than 35 mm.

The space between two taps should not be less than 0.20 m.

The left tap should be connected to the hot water supply.

Telephone fixtures with a cord at least 1.50 m long are recommended for use in showers and bath-tubs. These can be hand-held or fixed at an adjustable height between 1.20 m and 1.80 m from the floor to suit all users.

3.11 Flooring

Rest rooms must not have doorsteps. The gradient of the floor should be as low as possible.

Thresholds should be avoided. When inevitable, the maximum threshold height should be 20 mm (see Doors).

Flooring materials should be skid-proof and easy to clean.

The floor should be well-drained and provided with adequate waterproofing.

3.12 Alarms

Rest rooms should be equipped with an alarm system.

3.13 Pipes

All exposed hot water pipes should be insulated or covered.

It is preferable that pipes be fitted in the wall.

4. Existing constructions

4.1 Public rest rooms

For accessible buildings, at least one accessible unisex rest room should be provided per facility (see Building Types).

4.2 Wate-closets

To obtain an accessible toilet combine two adjacent stalls by removing one water-closet and the mutual partition, provided that the number of remaining fixtures is sufficient for the floor population.

4.3 Urinals

Existing high urinals need not be replaced if accessible toilet fixtures are available.

One urinal per rest room can be lowered.

4.4 Rest room vestibules

For narrow vestibules, replace doors with automatic door openers or use swing clear hinges.

Doors that restrict maneuvering space, should be removed so long as this does not inhibit privacy.

4.5 Grab bars

If grab bars are not provided in the initial construction, walls should be reinforced to withstand loads.

4.6 Accessories

Rest room accessories located at a maximum height of 1.40 m need not be modified if they are accessible.

4.7 Mirrors

If existing mirrors are too high, they can be tilted or a full-length mirror can be installed on another wall.


Notes:

(1) Toilet seats, bidets, shower seats and bath-tub seats are required to be mounted at the same height of the wheelchair seat, i.e. between 0.45m and 0.50 m above floor level.

(2) Grab bars are manufactured in various dimensions and shapes. They can either be wall-mounted or floor-mounted. Retractable bars are also available.

Parallel approach to toilet seat or bidet.
Fig. 1

 

Diagonal approach to toilet seat or bidet - difficult.
Fig. 2

 

Perpendicular approach to toilet seat or bidet - difficult.
Fig. 3

 

Frontal approach to toilet seat or bidet - very difficult.
Fig. 4

 

Minimum dimensions for toilets allowing different approaches to toilet seat or bidet.Fig. 5

Minimum requirements for the size and layout of residential restrooms.

Fig 6.

 

Minimum requirements for size and layout of water-closets and toilet stalls.
Fig. 7

 

Minimum requirements for water-closet grab bars.
Fig. 8

 

Requirements for wash basins.
Fig. 9

 

Minimum requirements for bathtubs.
Fig. 10

 

Minimum requirments for shower stalls
Fig. 11

 

Minimum requirments for shower stalls
Fig. 12

 

Minimum requirments for urinals.
Fig. 13

 

 

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